Figure 5.37: Algerian dry natural gas production and consumption (Source EIA 2013, country report Algeria)
Pipelines Gas is exported to Europe through three main pipelines crossing the Mediterranean sea: \\ Pipeline Enrico Mattei (GEM): It came on line in 1983 and transports gas along 1,650km from Algeria to Italy via Tunisia. According to Sonatrach, its capacity is around 33bcma. \\ Maghreb–Europe Gas Pipeline (MEG): it came on line in 1996 and transports gas along 520km to Spain via Morocco. Its capacity is around 12bcma. \\ MEDGAZ pipeline: it came on line in 2011 and transports gas along 200km onshore and offshore, from Algeria to Spain. Its capacity is around 8bcma. LNG plants Currently, Algeria has three liquefaction plants, two in Arzew (after the closure of one unit in April 2010 ) in the West and one in Skikda in the East. Combined LNG production capacity of all four plants is 44bcma of equivalent gas 1) (484TWh/y). In 2013 Algeria exported 28bcm (308TWh) of natural gas via pipeline. 55% of the pipe exports went through Spain (Portuguese and Spanish markets) while the remaining 45% went through Italy (Italian and Slovenian markets). Algerian pipe- line exports toward Spain were around 8–11bcma (88–121 TWh/y) between 2006 and 2011. From 2012, with the setting up of the MEDGAZ pipeline, imports have increased up to around 15bcma (165TWh/y). In the meantime Algerian pipeline exports toward Italy were above 20 bcma (220 TWh/y) between 2006 and 2012. However, from 2013 a 40% decline has been observed which could be linked to the renegotiation of long-term contracts between ENI and Sonatrach 2) . Almost all of Algerian LNG exports went to Europe over the last years with France and Spain as the main destinations. In the period of 2007–2013 France counted for 41% to 50% of Algerian LNG exports when Spain amounted for 24% to 35% and smaller quantities were delivered to Greece. The main non-EU destination was Turkey and some small volumes also reached Asia (India and Japan received a combined 2% of LNG exports in 2011).