Exports Gas is exported to Europe through three main pipelines:
\\ Nord Stream: it is a twin offshore pipeline across the Baltic Sea with the first line established in 2011, and the second one in 2012. It transmits gas along 1,220km between Vyborg (Russia) and Greifswald (Germany) and has an annual capacity of around 55bcma 1) . \\ Yamal-Europe I: it entered in operation in 1994 and transmits gas along 2,000km to Poland and Germany via Belarus. Its annual capacity is around 33bcma 2) . \\ Brotherhood (Urengoy-Uzhgorod pipeline): it entered into operation in 1967 and it is the largest gas pipeline route from Russia to Europe. Transiting through Ukraine, it brings gas to Central and Western European countries as well as Southern East Europe countries to finally end up in Turkey. The total annual capacity of the Brotherhood is around 100bcma 3) . Other export gas pipelines of Russia bring gas to other markets: \\ Blue Stream: is a 1,210km-long gas offshore pipeline directly connecting Russia to Turkey across the Black Sea. It came on line in 2003 and its annual capacity is around 16bcm.
\\ North Caucasus: it carries Russian gas to Georgia and Armenia and its annual capacity is around 10bcm. \\ Gazi-Magomed-Mozdok: it runs 640km long be- tween Russia and Azerbaijan. Initially this pipeline was used to export Russian gas to Azerbaijan, but it has been reversed and from 2010 it can carry 6bcm of gas per year from Azerbaijan to Russia. In the last five years the largest recipients of Russian pipeline exports in the European Union were Germany and Italy. In 2013, these two countries amounted for 40% of the 136 bcm of Russian gas imported into Europe. Outside the European Union the largest recip- ients were Turkey, Ukraine and Belarus. Besides the pipeline exports, Russia is also an export- er of LNG. The Sakhalin liquefaction plant was commissioned in 2009 and the majority of the LNG was exported to Japan and South Korea. In 2013 Russia exported around 14bcm of liquefied natural gas. However, in comparison to the EU pipeline- bounded gas exports it is still a small amount (10.5%). The Yamal and Shtokman LNG projects could increase the LNG export of Russia in the future but nowadays these projects are still uncertain. In addition, Russia is extending its interest to far East- ern markets. In 2014, Russia signed a supply contract with China to deliver 38bcma of natural gas as of 2018 through a 4,000km long pipeline running from East- ern Siberia to Vladivostok. Even when this project is shared by the two stated owned companies Gazprom and CNPC, the investments are colossal 4) and first construction works have not yet started.
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Figure 5.32: Russian natural gas trade movements by pipeline (source BP Statistical Review 2014)
1), 2), 3) According to Gazprom Export website. 4) According to official Russian and Chinese information overall cost could be around $ 75 billion with a $ 55 billion share for the Russia and a $ 20 billion share for China.