Besides being used in the residential, commercial and industrial sectors as well as for power generation, gas is becoming more favored as a fuel for transportation purposes. In order to have a wider range of potential future gas demand scenarios, TSOs have been asked to provide gas projections for the maritime and road trans- portation sectors based on the same assumption as used for the Green and Grey scenarios . Compressed natural gas (CNG) for road transportation (mainly light duty vehicles – LDV) is currently the most mature market in Europe with close to 1 million vehicles adapted to this technology and around 3,000 fillings stations. The highest numbers of filling stations are found in Italy, Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Netherlands, Finland and Bulgaria.
Figure 4.31: Ratio of vehicles per CNG filling station, ENTSOG depiction (Source Eurogas/NGVA Europe)
LNG has cleaner exhaust emissions and higher energy efficiency. LNG could be used as a replacement for heavy oil fuel in sea-born transportation and for diesel in inland- water transportation. On-shore LNG bunker facilities 1) for vessels are already in place
1) Bunker facilities are referring to LNG refilling station for ships.